Canada’s Contributions to the Sciences

This article will give you information about the renowned French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur. His name is written in the ‘history of medicine’ in golden words, along with Alexander Fleming, Robert Koch and Joseph Lister.

Who is Louis Pasteur? The great scientist was born on December 27, 1822, in the small town of Dole, France. Jean-Joseph Pasteur and Jeanne Roqui are his parents. Pasteur’s father was a tanner by trade. And tanning was their family business. Jean-Joseph had received little education, so he wanted his son to become a teacher at the local lycee high school. Pasteur spent his early school days in the small town of Arbois. There he was regarded as an average student. But his headmaster spotted the potential in him and encouraged him to prepare for the École Normale Supérieure. This is a huge training college for teachers located in Paris.

So, at the age of fifteen Pasteur went to Paris to prepare for his entrance exam. But homesickness made him to travel back to France. There he continued his study and received his bachelor’s degree in letters from the Collège Royal de Besançon. At the age of twenty, he tried again in Paris and this time he won the entrance exam. Thus, he was admitted to the École Normale.

Pasteur was awarded his doctorate in 1847. His doctorate thesis was on crystallography. He engaged several years of his life in teaching and carrying out research at Dijon and Strasbourg. From there he moved to the University of Lille to become a professor of chemistry. Wherever he goes, he continues his research works. In the University of Lille, he continued his research work on fermentation, which he started at Strasbourg. In 1857 he discovered the Pasteur Effect. This made him world famous, and at that time he returned to Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris as a lecturer. From there he moved to Lille University to become a dean of the science department. After working there for a couple of years, he established a laboratory for his rabies vaccine in 1867. Later the laboratory became Pasteur Institute and he was the head of it until his death in 1895.

What are Louis Pasteur’s contributions to the world of science? Louis Pasteur invented pasteurization and discovered the germ theory. Through his studies Pasteur proved that most of the infectious diseases are caused by micro organisms.

What led him to find fermentation process? Louis Pasteur concentrated on the study of fermentation after a local industrialist approached him for an advice concerning the production of alcohol with beet juice. Pasture solved his problem of conversion of beet juice into sour liquid instead of alcohol by finding the growth of bacteria in the medium. His solution for the problem was to heat the wine in sixty degrees Celsius for a short time. This will prevent the growth of bacteria and the wine does not go sour. He advised the same procedure to prevent the souring of milk. This process is widely used all over the world and is called pasteurization.

Another notable contribution of Louis Pasteur is the medicine for rabies, a contagious disease that attacks the central nervous system. People get infected with this infection from the bite of a rabies infected animal. By studying the tissues of the infected animals, Pasteur developed a medicine for the infection. He tested his vaccine on human beings in 1885 and it was a success. Today we are using the modified version of the Pasteur’s therapy. I am a regular viewer of programs and documentaries related to modern and ancient discoveries and findings on my HD television connected to Satellite TV Providers. Such programs not only improve our knowledge but also encourage us to find something new.

Scientific Research in Canada

The research of Lehrer, Jaslow, and Curtis (2003) has documented that with this kind of instruction in earlier grades, even third graders can develop robust understanding of the measurement of weight and volume. Significantly, the researchers found that children use many of the explicit ideas they have developed about measure from their earlier work on length and area (e.g., ideas about the need to identify a fixed unit, equal partition, and fractional unit, as well as constructing two dimensional arrays) in their new investigations. They note that although children must still work through these (and other) issues for the new quantities in question, they work through these issues more quickly than they did for the earlier quantities. Hence, they suggest meaningful transfer has occurred by allowing children a speed-up in working through new problems, not a side-stepping of the problems themselves. (For example, in constructing a measure of volume, students need to confront the new problem of imagining a three dimensional array. Work with multiple forms of representation and coordinating among these different representations is crucial to this process.)

Having developed these tools, children can use them to deepen their exploration of the characteristics of matter and measurements. For example, they can use a scale to measure the weight of an object (e.g., a clay ball), and then be asked how much the object would weigh if it were half its size or one quarter its size. Then they could carry out investigations to check their predictions. In carrying out these investigations, different groups of children need to measure the weight of the ball and its volume (to confirm they have made it half or a quarter its size) multiple times. In the process, they will have to decide how to handle variability in their data and wrestle with the idea of measurement error. For another way, learning a foreign language needs a leaning tools, many people choose Rosetta Stone German and
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They can also be asked to extrapolate to a much smaller piece-say a piece 1/100th the size. If the initial piece weighed 1 gram, what would a piece 1/100th that size weigh? If the scale didn’t tip down, does that mean it weighs nothing at all? How could they investigate it further? This kind of thought experiment allows students to use mathematical reasoning and conceptual arguments to go from what they know to what they think should be. For example, they might argue that, as long as there is some amount of stuff, it must weigh something, although it may be only a tiny, tiny bit; one cannot take a string of nothings and get something. In this way, they can add features to their conceptual representation that follow inferentially rather than through direct observation. It also allows them to confront important issues about precision of measurement. After students have had a chance to discuss these issues, they might be challenged to think of ways of constructing more sensitive scales.

Physics and Biosciences of Canada

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Famous Canadian Physicists and Bioscientists

Great physicists in the 18th and 19th centuries and earlier have made considerable contributions to the development of modern physics. Their theories and laws have led the inventions which are really helpful for modern lives.

Amadeo Avogadro (1776-1856)

Hailed as a founder of the atomic-molecular theory, Amadeo Avogadro is famous for his contribution to molecular theory including Avogadro’s law. His law states that the relationship between the masses of the same volume of different gases (at the same temperature and pressure) corresponds to the relationship between their respective molecular weights.

Amadeo Avogadro is noted for his contributions to molecular theory.

Amadeo Avogadro is noted for his contributions to molecular theory.

André Marie Ampère (1775-1836)

French physicist Andre Marie Ampere is known as one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. On 18 September 1820, he demonstrated that parallel wires carry currents which attract or repel each other, depending on whether currents are in the same or opposite directions.

Ampère's theory of magnetization is based on the assumption that the magnetic property of a magnet is due to currents circulating in the molecules of the magnet.

Ampère’s theory of magnetization is based on the assumption that the magnetic property of a magnet is due to currents circulating in the molecules of the magnet.

Aage Bohr (1922-2009)

Aage Bohr and Mottelson demonstrated close agreement between theory and experiment. Their work on comparison between theoretical work with experiment data was prized the Atoms for Peace Award.

Aage Bohr and Mottelson demonstrated close agreement between theory and experiment. Their work on comparison between theoretical work with experiment data was prized the Atoms for Peace Award.

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

Albert Einstein is widely known as one of the most influential scientists and intellectuals of all time. His work in 1905 shook the world of physics, introducing the photon theory of light. The concepts of special relativity were introduced in his paper “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”.

Formula E=mc2 is one of Einstein’s most well-known accomplishments.

Formula E=mc2 is one of Einstein’s most well-known accomplishments.

Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)

Enrico Fermi made great contributions to the development of quantum theory, statistical mechanics, nuclear, and particle physics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity in 1938, with his “demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”.

Enrico Fermi is referred to as “the father of the atomic bomb”.

Enrico Fermi is known as “the father of the atomic bomb”.

Christian Doppler (1803-1853)

Christian Doppler is noted for Doppler effect which the apparent change in frequency and wavelength of a wave as perceived by an observer moving relative to the wave’s source. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren, passes, and recedes from an observer.

The Doppler effect for light is important in astronomy

The Doppler effect for light is important in astronomy

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Benjamin Franklin discovered that lightning and electricity are the same thing. He began to think about protecting people, buildings, and other structures form lightning, which grew into his idea for the lightning rod.

Benjamin Franklin discovered that lightning and electricity are the same thing. He began to think about protecting people, buildings, and other structures form lightning, which grew into his idea for the lightning rod.